Bash is a command-line shell and scripting language that is commonly used on Unix-based operating systems such as Linux and macOS. In this tutorial, we will cover the basics of working with Bash, including running commands, navigating the file system, and writing simple Bash scripts.
To get started with Bash, open a terminal window and type
bash to start a new Bash shell. You should see a command prompt, which will typically display your username and the name of your current directory.
To run a command in Bash, simply type the command and press enter. For example,
ls will list the contents of your current directory, while
cd can be used to change to a different directory. Use the
man command to display the manual page for a particular command, which will provide detailed information about its options and usage.
To navigate the file system, use the
cd command to change directories, and
ls to list the contents of the current directory. You can also use special characters such as
~ to refer to your home directory, and
.. to refer to the parent directory.
To create a Bash script, open a text editor such as
nano and write the commands you wish to execute. Start the file with a “shebang” line, which tells the system which interpreter to use. For example, to use Bash as the interpreter, include the following line at the beginning of your script:
Save the file with a
.sh extension, and make it executable using the
chmod +x myscript.sh
You can then run your script by typing its name at the command prompt, such as:
In addition to running commands and writing scripts, Bash also provides a variety of other features, such as command-line editing, history, and aliases. For more information, see the Bash manual page (
man bash) or online resources such as the Bash Beginners Guide.
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